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『アーカイブズ学研究』第20号要旨«No.20 Abstracts»
An Analysis of the Organization of the Sunagawa Village Office(Sunagawa-mura yakuba 砂川村役場)and the Structure of Its Archives : Focusing on the Town and Village Districts Law(Chosonsei 町村制)Regime
(大石三紗子 Misako OISHI)
   砂川村役場文書を作成した行政機関は、明治6 年(1873)4 月〜番組(小区)会所、明治11 年〜戸長役場、明治22 年〜村役場、昭和29~38 年(1954~63)に町役場と変化している。砂川町は、昭和38年5月1日に立川市と合併し、現在の東京都立川市が誕生した。
 本稿では、この砂川村役場文書の構造を、作成した組織の分析に基づいて考察し、町村制下の役場文書の特徴に言及する。現存する砂川村役場文書は、大半が町村制下の村役場で作成された文書である。町村制下の村役場は、村長などを含めて5~10 人程の吏員が勤める程度であり、機構も分化されていない小規模な組織であった。このような組織で作成された文書を、事務内容によって分類すると、大半が郡役所とのやり取りによって発生した収受・発送文書であったことが判明した。この特徴は、町村制下の町村役場が、中央集権体制下における末端の機関として上意下達の文書を重視した結果である。
   The Sunagawa Village Office Archives(Sunagawa-mura yakuba bunsho 砂川村役場文書)were created by the local administrative office, which successively changed from a small administrative district office(bankumi 番組 or shoku 小区 kaisho 会所:1873-1878)to an administrative district office headed by Kocho(kocho yakuba 戸長役場:1878-1889)to a village office(mura yakuba 村役場:1889-1954),and finally to a town office(machi yakuba 町役場:1954-1963).On May 1, 1963, Sunagawa Town(Sunagawa -machi 砂川町)merged with Tachikawa City(Tachikawa -shi 立川市).
 This paper examines the structure of the Sunagawa Village Office Archives based on an analysis of the organization of the creator of the archival records and states their characteristics. Most of the surviving records were created during the period when the Town and Village Districts Law(Chosonsei 町村制)was in effect(1889-1947).When this law was in effect, the Sunagawa Village Office was small, only having five to ten staff members, including the village mayor, and was not divided into sections. When the existing records created by such a small office are categorized according to the types of clerical works, often, most of the records are correspondences between the village office and the county office(gun -yakusho 郡役所).This feature is a consequence of the fact that town and village offices(choson yakuba 町村役場)served as terminal organizations in the centralized administrative framework, with documents trickling from the top down(joi katatsu 上意下達).
A Consideration of the Structure of Compilation Spelling of the Public Office Document― : With the Soldier-Related Document of the Meiji Period: Sunagawa Village as a Case
(高江洲昌哉 Masaya TAKAESU)
   本論は、明治期の砂川村役場文書の兵事文書(特に上級官庁からの収受を中心とする兵事関係の簿冊)を事例にし、目次無簿冊から目次有簿冊へ整理されていく変化を、日別綴から件別綴への変化として捉える構図を提示している。併せて、明治25 年に準則が出されながらも、対外戦争による業務の拡大が簿冊の未整理をもたらしたように、簿冊が整理されていく過程を、アーカイブズ学的観点(簿冊の整理に関する技術的理解)と日本近代史的観点(明治中後期の所謂日清・日露戦争期に関する歴史学の問題関心)を連結させて考える視点で分析し、日清・日露戦争期という時代の特性の中で「簿冊の整理」を理解する枠組みを提示する内容になっている。
   This paper studies the military records at the Sunagawa village office from the Meiji period(the volumes that record the details of soldiers that the government agencies requested to be collected).It moves from studying records that were arranged without a table of contents to records that were arranged with a table of contents; it also studies how the records were classified on a case by case basis. Although, in 1892, because of wars like the Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War, the arrangement of the volumes was not ordered, this study will attempt to rearrange the records based on two viewpoints(: 1)from an archival study viewpoint(that is, studying the technical understanding of rearranging documents),and(2)from a Japanese modern historical viewpoint. This study will present a framework to analyze the method of arranging these records during the unique period of the Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.
The Processes of Handover of Village Office Documents(murayakuba bunsho 村役場文書)in the Late Meiji Period: A Comparison of Sunagawa Village (Sunagawa-mura 砂川村)and Uonashi Village (Uonashi-mura 魚成村)
(冨善一敏 Kazutoshi TOMIZEN)
   本論文では、市制町村制下における村役場文書の引き継ぎについて検討し、東京府北多摩郡砂川村と、愛媛県東宇和郡魚成(うおなし)村の明治36 年(1903)の引継目録の比較を行った。両者の共通点として、1)村長引継文書と収入役引継文書との区別が存在したこと、2)残存率は比較的高いが近世文書は少ないこと、相違点として、3)文書の保存年限制は砂川村では適用されなかったが、魚成村では適用されたこと、4)砂川村では引継目録の記載形式に村長交代が反映し、郡役所が強力な指導を行ったが、魚成村では郡役所の関与が少ないこと、5)砂川村では戸籍関係文書及び町村制施行以前の文書が引継目録に多数記載されているが、魚成村では少ないこと、の5 点を指摘した。
   This paper examines the handover of village office documents under the municipal government system by comparing the 1903 handover list of Sunagawa Village, Kitatama District, Tokyo, with that of Uonashi Village, Higashiuwa District, Ehime Prefecture. Five points are noted here: The two have the following in common:(1)They each had two separate handover lists, one from the village mayor and one from the treasurer,(2)Although their survival rate was comparatively high, the number of early modern era documents is small. The differences between the two are as follows,(3)While a document storage period schedule was not employed in Sunagawa Village, such a period was employed in Uonashi Village,(4)Although in Sunagawa Village, the succession of the village mayor reflected the documentation format of the handover list and the district government office played a strong guiding role, the intervention of the district government office was minimal in Uonashi Village,(5)While many family register-related documents and documents predating the municipal government system were included on the handover list in Sunagawa Village, these documents were rarely on the Uonashi Village list.
Archival Documents Accumulated at Frontiers: The State and the Region seen through the Records of Hokkaido as a Domestic Colony
(鈴江英一 Eiichi SUZUE)
   Hokkaido was once a“frontier”or a“domestic colony”for the modern Japanese state. After the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese Empire extended its rule into inland Hokkaido, occupied it as farmland, and promoted immigration from the main land of Japan. At the same time, the empire ruled the Ainus, the indigenous people of Hokkaido.
 Records of the government offices that ruled Hokkaido in those days, such as Kaitakûshi (Office of Hokkaido Development Commission)and Hokkaido-cho (Hokkaido Prefectural Government),carry traces of the manner of their acquisition and the distribution of the resources of Hokkaido. The world of archives has thus dominated the surface of Hokkaido. This process has incorporated the inhabitants of Hokkaido, including the Ainus, into the world of archives.
 The government offices of Hokkaido accumulated their archives throughout the period mentioned earlier. However, after the reclamation by the land disposal policy came to an end, and Hokkaido lost its categorization as a frontier, those archives also lost their value for preservation. Archival collections kept by the Hokkaido Prefectural Archives today are those that managed to survive the crises of destruction or dissipation because of their newly recognized value as historical sources.
MLA におけるメディアの特性とアクセスに関する試論−東京大学経済学部資料室所蔵資料から−
An Essay about the Relationship between Access to and the Characteristics of Media in Museums, Libraries, and Archives: From the Collections at the Resources and Historical Collections Office, The Library of Economics, The University of Tokyo
(矢野正隆 Masataka YANO)
   本稿は、近年盛んに議論されている「MLA 連携」「資料保存」を、メディアへの「共時的アクセス」「通時的アクセス」を保証する営みである、と読み替え、両者が密接な関係を有することを、東京大学経済学部資料室が収蔵する資料の例を踏まえて、示そうとするものである。その際、まず、メディアへのアクセスが様々な水準で行われること、そして、そのアクセスの在り方が、メディア自体の構造と機能によって規定されることを明らかにする。このように、各種メディアの特性を捉え直すことにより、博物館(M)、図書館(L)、文書館(A)という既存の枠組みを自明の前提としない、取り扱うメディアそのものを基盤に置いた、収蔵機関の在り方の可能性を提示する。
   In this essay, we regard“collaboration among Museum, Library, and Archives”and the“preservation of materials”as activities promoting and assuring access to information from“synchronic”and“diachronic”perspectives. From these standpoints, we can see the close relationship between these two activities, using examples from the collections of the Resources and Historical Collections Office, The Library of Economics, The University of Tokyo. To be more precise, we categorize means of access to information through structural-functional analysis. Through this consideration, we indicate the possibilities of an informationgathering body on the basis of the characteristics of each media outside the framework of museums, libraries, and archives.
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